I wouldn't bet on it.
Phone companies are require to retain records on users up to a certain length of time. This should include things like voice mails, text messages and meta data on phone calls. However there is nothing stating that phone companies need to provide this data back to consumers without some kind of a warrant or judge approval. You can try to work through the VZW phone support system and hope to get escalated to someone who can help you, but I wouldn't count on it.