Unless you have them backed up or saved to micro SD, or maybe your PC might still read your phone when connected via USB, I do not think there is a way to get the pics back, especially if the phone won't turn on.
Aye, he has the right of it. One of many reasons why you will want to back up your photos to either a computer, or to the Cloud. (Google Drive, Dropbox, Verizon Cloud, etc. - there are many free options)
As far as pulling the data out of the chips, otherwise...? It would be complex. Probably cost an arm and a leg, if you could find a data service to do it. The sort of folk who contract out to the government to lift data evidence from smashed hard drives and other things.
Well, this is a basic phone so I'm betting Drive, OneDrive, Dropbox and such were not used unless the files were saved to a PC first.