If you had location on as well as find my iPhone you can look online for the location but it might be very specific for where it is in the house. iCloud.com
You will need to call it and listen for the ringtone or listen to the vibration...if you don't have either on then you'll have to just do a thorough search. Find my phone will not tell you the exact location within the house but it may give you a general idea...example, if I do Find my Phone in my house and my phone is located in the back of the house they it will show as being on the street directly behind my house versus my street. If it's up front then the opposite happens. That doesn't tell me where it is specifically (mind you, I've never actually lost it...I know where I place it before testing) but it lets me know the areas I could skip checking.
use the Find my iPhone feature on icloud.com.. there is a section there that says play sound or send a message... the phone will emit a sound even if it's on vibrate and won't stop until you unlock the phone.