You say the number you're calling works on another phone. Is that other phone on the Verizon network or another network? You could call Customer Service at 800-922-0204 or *611 to report the issue and ask them to escalate it to a network group to trace your failed call.
I found that I only received that error message when placing phone calls to Sprint customers. This problem began around January 24 or the 25 of 2018. I am using the iPhone 6 Plus and just last night 1/31/2018 I downloaded and installed iOS 11.2.5 and have not had this issue since. I hope this helps resolve your issue.
We want you to be able to use all your services. Let's get your device working. Since this started, have you tried resetting your network settings? Here is a link to help you with this, https://www.verizonwireless.com/support/knowledge-base-207110/.
Follow us on Twitter @VZWSupport
If my response answered your question please click the Correct Answer button under my response. This ensures others can benefit from our conversation. Thanks in advance for your help with this!